32 The negotiation of multilateral treaties is often initiated not by States but by international organisations such as the United Nations, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the ILO or the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). Many international treaties have been prepared by the ILC (such as the VCLT). The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (uniMelb staff and student access) provides comprehensive and authoritative overviews of all aspects of international law and is a good starting point for your research. The entries are arranged alphabetically by topic under general topics such as the law of treaties. From each entry in the Encyclopedia, the Oxford Law Citator will link to other relevant entries in the Encyclopedia and to relevant decisions of international tribunals in the Oxford Reports on International Law. After the preamble come the numbered articles that contain the content of the actual agreement of the parties. Each article title usually includes a paragraph. A long contract can group the elements under the chapter headings. In other cases, such as New Zealand with the Maori and Canada with its First Nations, treaties allowed Indigenous peoples to retain a minimum of autonomy. Such treaties between colonizers and indigenous peoples are an important part of political discourse in the late 20th and early 21st century, the treaties discussed have international prestige, as stated in a United Nations treaty study.   19 There are groups of agreements that have been concluded by subjects of international law but fall under national law, such as the acquisition of property by a State. Another group are agreements between States and a foreign natural or legal person governed by private law (contracts between States and foreign private law), such as contracts of .
B concession contracts, the nature of which is not entirely clear. One of the main ones being that such an agreement may be a treaty governed by international law if the parties intend to do so, and the contrary view asserts that the sine qua non of an international treaty is the existence of at least two parties that are subject to international law. In the case of the Anglo-Iranian oil company of 1952, the ICJ maintained the view that a concession agreement between the United Kingdom and the Iranian oil company was a private contract (in 112). In the United States, the term “treaty” has a different and more limited legal meaning than in international law. The U.S. law distinguishes what it calls “treaties” from “executive agreements,” which are either “congressional-executive agreements” or “exclusive executive agreements.” The classes are all equal international treaties; they differ only in the domestic law of the United States. The distinctions relate mainly to their type of authorisation. Contracts require the deliberation and approval of two-thirds of the senators present, but only executive agreements can be executed by the president alone. .